Article by Hontoley may
Related Sports Articles
Article by qwert parker
Inset from School of Recreation, 1710. “We perceive from the engraving of the Billiards of the seventtenth century, that the game was altogether different from what it is now.”
All cue sports are generally regarded to have evolved into indoor games from outdoor stick-and-ball lawn games (retroactively termed ground billiards), and as such to be related to trucco, croquet and golf, and more distantly to the stickless bocce and bowls.
The first known mention of a form of the word “billiards” appears in Edmund Spenser’s Mother Hubberd’s Tale in 1591, where he speaks of “all thriftles games that may be found … with dice, with cards, with balliards.” The word “billiard” may have evolved from the French word billart or billette, meaning “stick”, in reference to the mace, an implement similar to a golf club, which was the forerunner to the modern cue; the term’s origin may have also been from French bille, meaning “ball”.
The modern term “cue sports” can be used to encompass the ancestral mace games, and even the modern cueless variants, such as finger billiards, for historical reasons. “Cue” itself came from queue, the French word for a tail. This refers to the early practice of using the tail of the mace to strike the ball when it lay against a rail cushion.
A recognizable form of billiards was played outdoors in the 1340s, and was reminiscent of croquet. King Louis XI of France (14611483) had the first known indoor billiard table. Louis XIV further refined and popularized the game, and it swiftly spread amongst the French nobility. While the game had long been played on the ground, this version appears to have died out in the 1600s, in favor of croquet, golf and bowling games, while table billiards had grown in popularity as an indoor activity. Mary, Queen of Scots, claimed that her “table de billiard” had been taken away by what would eventually become her executioners (who covered her body with the table’s cloth). In 1588, the Duke of Norfolk, owned a “billyard bord coered with a greene cloth… three billyard sticks and 11 balls of yvery”. Billiards grew to the extent that by 1727, it was being played in almost every Paris cafe. In England, the game was developing into a very popular activity for members of the gentry.
By 1670, the thin butt end of the mace began to be used not only for shots under the cushion (which itself was originally only there as a preventative method to stop balls from rolling off), but players increasingly preferred it for other shots as well. The cue as it is known today was finally developed by about 1800.
Initially, the mace was used to push the balls, rather than strike them. The newly developed striking cue provided a new challenge. Cushions began to be stuffed with substances to allow the balls to rebound, in order to enhance the appeal of the game. After a transitional period where only the better players would use cues, the cue came to be the first choice of equipment.
The demand for tables and other equipment was initially met in Europe by John Thurston and other furniture makers of the era. The early balls were made from wood and clay, but the rich preferred to use ivory.
Early billiard games involved various pieces of additional equipment, including the “arch” (related to the croquet hoop), “port” (a different hoop) and “king” (a pin or skittle near the arch) in the 1770s, but other game variants, relying on the cushions (and eventually on pockets cut into them), were being formed that would go on to play fundamental roles in the development of modern billiards.
Illustration of a three ball pocket billiards game in early 19th century Tbingen, Germany, using a table much longer than the modern type.
The early croquet-like games eventually led to the development of the carom or carambole billiards category what most non-US and non-UK speakers mean by the word “billiards”. These games, which once completely dominated the cue sports world but have declined markedly in many areas over the last few generations, are games played with three or sometimes four balls, on a table without holes (and without obstructions or targets in most cases), in which the goal is generally to strike one object ball with a cue ball, then have the cue ball rebound off of one or more of the cushions and strike a second object ball. Variations include three-cushion, straight rail and the balkline variants, cushion caroms, five-pins, and four-ball, among others.
Over time, a type of obstacle returned, originally as a hazard and later as a target, in the form of pockets, or holes partly cut into the table bed and partly into the cushions, leading to the rise of pocket billiards, especially “pool” games, popular around the world in forms such as eight-ball, nine-ball, straight pool and one-pocket amongst numerous others. The terms “pool” and “pocket billiards” are now virtually interchangeable, especially in the US. English billiards (what UK speakers almost invariably mean by the word “billiards”) is a hybrid carom/pocket game, and as such is likely fairly close to the ancestral original pocket billiards outgrowth from 18th to early 19th century carom games.}
There are few more cheerful sights, when the evenings are long, and the weather dull, than a handsome, well-lighted billiard room, with the smooth, green surface of the billiard table; the ivory balls flying noiselessly here and there, or clicking musically together.
harles Dickens Jr., (1889)
As a sport
At least the games with regulated international professional competition have been referred to as “sports” or “sporting” events, not simply “games”, since 1893 at the latest. Quite a variety of particular games (i.e. sets of rules and equipment) are the subject of present-day competition, including many of those already mentioned, with competition being especially broad in nine-ball, snooker, three-cushion and eight-ball.
Snooker, though technically a pocket billiards variant and closely related in its equipment and origin to the game of English billiards, is a professional sport organized at the international level, and its rules bear little resemblance to those of pool games.
A “Billiards” category encompassing pool, snooker and carom was featured in the 2005 World Games, held in Duisburg, Germany, and the 2006 Asian Games also saw the introduction of a “Cue sports” category.
Main category: Cue sports equipment
Main article: Billiard balls
Billiard balls vary from game to game, in size, design and number. Carom billiards balls are larger than pool balls, and come as a set of two cue balls (one colored or marked) and an object ball (or two object balls in the case of the game four-ball). American-style pool balls, used in any pool game and found throughout the world, come in sets of two suits of object balls, seven solids and seven stripes, an 8 ball and a cue ball; the balls are racked differently for different games (some of which do not use the entire ball set). Blackball (English-style eight-ball) sets are similar, but have unmarked groups of red (or blue) and yellow balls instead of solids and stripes, and are smaller than the American-style; they are used principally in Britain, Ireland, and some Commonwealth countries, though not exclusively, since they are unsuited for playing nine-ball. Snooker balls are also smaller than American-style pool balls, and come in sets of 22 (15 reds, 6 “colours”, and a cue ball). Other games also have custom ball sets, such as Russian pyramid and bumper pool.
Billiard balls have been made from many different materials since the start of the game, including clay, bakelite, celluloid, crystallite, ivory, plastic, steel and wood. The dominant material from 1627 until the early 20th century was ivory. The search for a substitute for ivory use was not for environmental concerns but based on economic motivation and fear of danger for elephant hunters. It was in part spurred on by a New York billiard table manufacturer who announced a prize of $ 10,000 for a substitute material. The first viable substitute was celluloid, invented by John Wesley Hyatt in 1868, but the material was volatile, sometimes exploding during manufacture and was highly flammable.
Main article: Billiard table
Pool table with equipment.
There are many sizes and styles of pool and billiard tables. Generally, tables are rectangles twice as long as they are wide. Most pool tables are known as 7-, 8-, or 9-footers, referring to the length of the table’s long side. Full-size snooker and English billiard tables are 12 feet (3.7 m) long on the longest side. Pool halls tend to have 9-foot (2.7 m) tables and cater to the serious pool player. Pubs will typically use 7-foot (2.1 m) tables which are often coin-operated. Formerly, 10-foot (3 m) tables were common, but such tables are now considered antique collectors items; a few, usually from the late 1800s, can be found in pool halls from time to time. Ten-foot tables remain the standard size for carom billiard games. The slates on modern carom tables are usually heated to stave off moisture and provide a consistent playing surface.
The length of the pool table will typically be a function of space, with many homeowners purchasing an 8-foot (2.4 m) table as a compromise. High quality tables are mostly 4.5 by 9 ft (2.7 m). (interior dimensions), with a bed made of three pieces of thick slate to prevent warping and changes due to humidity. Smaller bar tables are most commonly made with a single piece of slate. Pocket billiards tables normally have six pockets, three on each side (four corner pockets, and two side pockets).
Main article: Baize
Women playing on an elaborately decorated green-covered table in an early 1880s advertising poster.
All types of tables are covered with billiard cloth (often called “felt”, but actually a woven wool or wool/nylon blend called baize). Cloth has been used to cover billiards tables since the 15th century. In fact, the predecessor company of the most famous maker of billiard cloth, Iwan Simonis, was formed in 1453.
Bar or tavern tables, which get a lot of play, use “slower”, more durable cloth. The cloth used in upscale pool (and snooker) halls and home billiard rooms is “faster” (i.e. provides less friction, allowing the balls to roll farther across the table bed), and competition-quality pool cloth is made from 100 % worsted wool. Snooker cloth traditionally has a nap (consistent fiber directionality) and balls behave differently when rolling against versus along with the nap.
The cloth of the billiard table has traditionally been green, reflecting its origin (originally the grass of ancestral lawn games), and has been so colored since the 16th century, but it is also produced in other colors such as red and blue.
The cloth was earlier said to be the most important part of the game, most likely because of the reflection of the game’s origin. The players were stubborn in the fact that the cloth should not be ripped. They even made women continue to use maces after cues were invented, for fear that they would rip the cloth with the sharper cues.
Main article: Rack (billiards)
A rack is the name given to a frame (usually wood,plastic or aluminum) used to organize billiard balls at the beginning of a game. This is traditionally triangular in shape, but varies with the type of billiards played. There are two main types of racks; the more common triangular shape which is used for eight-ball and straight pool and the diamond shaped rack used for nine-ball.
Main article: Cue stick
Billiards games are mostly played with a stick known as a cue. A cue is usually either a one piece tapered stick or a two piece stick divided in the middle by a joint of metal or phenolic resin. High quality cues are generally two pieces and are made of a hardwood, generally maple for billiards and ash for snooker.
The butt end of the cue is of larger circumference and is intended to be gripped by a player’s hand. The shaft of the cue is of smaller circumference, usually tapering to an 0.4 to 0.55 inches (10 to 14 mm) terminus called a ferrule (usually made of fiberglass or brass in better cues), where a rounded leather tip is affixed, flush with the ferrule, to make final contact with balls. The tip, in conjunction with chalk, can be used to impart spin to the cue ball when it is not hit in its center.
Cheap cues are generally made of pine, low-grade maple (and formerly often of ramin, which is now endangered), or other low-quality wood, with inferior plastic ferrules. A quality cue can be expensive and may be made of exotic woods and other expensive materials which are artfully inlaid in decorative patterns. Many modern cues are also made, like golf clubs, with high-tech materials such as woven graphite. Skilled players may use more than one cue during a game, including a separate generally lighter cue for the opening break shot (because of cue speed gained from a lighter stick) and another, shorter cue with a special tip for jump shots.
The mechanical bridge, sometimes called a “rake”, “bridge stick” or simply “bridge”, and “rest” in the UK, is used to extend a player’s reach on a shot where the cue ball is too far away for normal hand bridging. It consists of a stick with a grooved metal or plastic head which the cue slides on. Many amateurs refuse to use the mechanical bridge based on the perception that to do so is unmanly. However, many aficionados and most professionals employ the bridge whenever the intended shot so requires. Some players, especially current or former snooker players, use a screw-on cue butt extension instead of or in addition to the mechanical bridge. Bridge head design is varied, and not all designs (especially those with cue shaft-enclosing rings, or wheels on the bottom of the head), are broadly tournament-approved. In Italy a longer, thicker cue is typically available for this kind of tricky shot. Commonly in snooker they are available in three forms depending on how the player is hampered; the standard rest has a simple cross, the ‘spider’ has a raised arch around 12 cm with three grooves to rest the cue in and for the most awkward of shots, the ‘giraffe’ which has a raised arch much like the ‘spider’ but with a slender arm reaching out around 15 cm with the groove.
Billiard chalk is applied to the tip of the cue.
Chalk is applied to the tip of the cue stick, ideally before every shot, to increase the tip’s friction coefficient so that when it impacts the cue ball on a non-center hit, no miscue (unintentional slippage between the cue tip and the struck ball) occurs. Cue tip chalk is not actually the substance typically referred to as “chalk” (generally calcium carbonate, also known as calcite or carbonate of lime), but any of several proprietary compounds, with a silicate base. “Chalk” may also refer to a cone of fine, white hand chalk; like talc (talcum powder) it can be used to reduce friction between the cue and bridge hand during shooting, for a smoother stroke. Some brands of hand chalk actually are made of compressed talc. (Tip chalk is not used for this purpose because it is abrasive, hand-staining and difficult to apply.) Many players prefer a slick pool glove over hand chalk or talc because of the messiness of these powders; buildup of particles on the cloth will affect ball behavior and necessitate more-frequent cloth cleaning.
Cue tip chalk (invented in its modern form by straight rail billiard pro William A. Spinks and chemist William Hoskins in 1897) is made by crushing silica and the abrasive substance corundum or aloxite (aluminum oxide), into a powder. It is combined with dye (originally and most commonly green or blue-green, like traditional billiard cloth, but available today, like the cloth, in many colors) and a binder (glue). Each manufacturer’s brand has different qualities, which can significantly affect play. High humidity can also impair the effectiveness of chalk. Harder, drier compounds are generally considered superior by most players.
Major games (carom and pocket)
Carom billiards table in a Parisian caf.
Main articles: Carom billiards and Pocket billiards
There are two main varieties of billiard games: carom and pocket. The main carom billiards games are straight billiards, balkline and three cushion billiards. All are played on a pocketless table with three balls; two cue balls and one object ball. In all, players shoot a cue ball so that it makes contact with the opponent’s cue ball as well as the object ball.
The most popular of the large variety of pocket games are eight-ball, nine-ball, one-pocket, bank pool, snooker and, among the old guard, straight pool. In eight-ball and nine-ball the object is to sink object balls until one can legally pocket the winning eponymous “money ball”. Well-known but waning in popularity is straight pool, in which players seek to continue sinking balls, rack after rack if they can, to reach a pre-determined winning score (typically 150). Related to nine-ball, another well-known game is rotation, where the lowest-numbered object ball on the table must be struck first, although any object ball may be pocketed (i.e., combination shot). Each pocketed ball is worth its number, and the player with the highest score at the end of the rack is the winner. Since there are only 120 points available (1 + 2 + 3 + 15 = 120), scoring 61 points leaves no opportunity for the opponent to catch up. In both one-pocket and bank pool, the players must sink a set number of balls; respectively, all in a particular pocket, or all by bank shots. In snooker, players score points by alternately potting red balls and various special “colour balls”.
Man playing billiards with a cue and a woman with mace, from an illustration appearing in Michael Phelan’s 1859 book, The Game of Billiards.
Straight rail or straight billiards
Main article: Balkline and straight rail
In straight rail, a player scores a point and may continue shooting each time his cue ball makes contact with both other balls.
Although a difficult and subtle game, some of the best players of straight billiards developed the skill to gather the balls in a corner or along the same rail for the purpose of playing a series of nurse shots to score a seemingly limitless number of points.
The first straight rail professional tournament was held in 1879 where Jacob Schaefer, Sr. scored 690 points in a single turn (that is, 690 separate strokes without a miss). With the balls repetitively hit and barely moving in endless “nursing”, there was little for the fans to watch.
Main article: Balkline and straight rail
In light of these phenomenal skill developments in straight rail, the game of balkline soon developed to make it impossible for a player to keep the balls gathered in one part of the table for long, greatly limiting the effectiveness of nurse shots. A balkline (not to be confused with baulk line, which pertains to the game of English billiards) is a line parallel to one end of a billiards table. In the games of balkline 18.1 and 18.2 (pronounced “eighteen-point-two”) balkline, among other more obscure variations the players have to drive at least one object ball past a balkline set at 18 inches (460 mm) from each rail, after one or two points have been scored, respectively.
Main article: Carom billiards#Three-cushion billiards
A more elegant solution was three-cushion billiards, which requires a player to make contact with the other two balls on the table and contact three rail cushions in the process. This is difficult enough that even the best players can only manage to average one to two points per turn.
Main article: English billiards
Dating to approximately 1800, English billiards is a hybrid of carom and pocket billiards played on a 6-foot (1.8 m) by 12-foot (3.7 m) table. Like most carom games, it requires two cue balls and a red object ball. The object of the game is to score either a fixed number of points, or score the most points within a set time frame, determined at the start of the game.
Points are awarded for:
Two-ball Cannons: striking both the object ball and the other (opponent’s) cue ball on the same shot (2 points)
Winning hazards: potting the red ball (3 points); potting the other cue ball (2 points)
Losing hazards (or “in-offs”): potting one’s cue ball by cannoning off another ball (3 points if the red ball was hit first; 2 points if the other cue ball was hit first, or if the red and other cue ball were “split”, i.e. hit simultaneously).
Main article: Snooker
Snooker is a pocket billiards game originated by British officers stationed in India during the 19th century. The name of the game became generalized to also describe one of its prime strategies: to “snooker” the opposing player by causing that player to foul or leave an opening to be exploited.
In the United Kingdom, snooker is by far the most popular cue sport at the competitive level. It is played in many other countries as well. Snooker is far rarer in the U.S., where pool games such as eight-ball and nine-ball dominate. The first International Snooker Championship was held in 1927, and it has been held annually since then with few exceptions. The World Professional Billiards and Snooker Association (WPBSA) was established in 1968 to regulate the professional game, while the International Billiards and Snooker Federation (IBSF) regulates the amateur games.
Main article: Eight-ball
In the United States, the most commonly-played game is eight-ball. The goal of eight-ball, which is played with a full rack of fifteen balls and the cue ball, is to claim a suit (commonly stripes or solids in the US, and reds or yellows in the UK), pocket all of them, then legally pocket the 8 ball, while denying one’s opponent opportunities to do the same with their suit, and without sinking the 8 ball early by accident. On the professional scene, eight-ball players on the International Pool Tour (IPT) were the highest paid players in the world as of 2006 (the IPT nearly folded in 2007, and as of 2008 is attempting a comeback). In the United Kingdom the game is commonly played in pubs, and it is competitively played in leagues on both sides of the Atlantic. The most prestigious tournaments including the World Open are sponsored and sanctioned by the International Pool Tour. Rules vary widely from place to place (and between continents to such an extent that British-style eight-ball pool/blackball is properly regarded as a separate game in its own right). Pool halls in North America are increasingly settling upon the World Pool-Billiard Association International Standardised Rules. But tavern eight-ball (also known as “bar pool”), typically played on smaller, coin-operated tables and in a “winner keeps the table” manner, can differ significantly even between two venues in the same city. The growth of local, regional and national amateur leagues may alleviate this confusion eventually.
Main article: Nine-ball
Nine-ball uses only the 1 through 9 balls and cue ball. It is a rotation game: The player at the table must make legal contact with the lowest numbered ball on the table or a foul is called. The game is won by legally pocketing the nine ball. Nine-ball is the predominant professional game, though as of 20062008 there have been some suggestions that this may change, in favor of ten-ball.[clarification needed] There are many local and regional tours and tournaments that are contested with nine-ball. The World Pool-Billiard Association (WPA), and it American affiliate the Billiard Congress of America (BCA), publish the World Standardized Rules. The European professional circuit has instituted rules changes, especially to make it more difficult to achieve a legal break shot. The largest nine-ball tournaments are the independent US Open Nine-ball Championship and the WPA World Nine-ball Championship for men and women. Male professionals have a rather fragmented schedule of professional nine-ball tournaments. The United States Professional Pool Players Association (UPA) has been the most dominant association of the 1990s and 2000s. A hotly contested event is the annual Mosconi Cup, which pits invitational European and US teams against each other in one-on-one and scotch doubles nine-ball matches over a period of several days. The Mosconi Cup games are played under the more stringent European rules, as of 2007.
Main article: Three-ball
A variant using only three balls, generally played such that the player at turn continues shooting until all the balls are pocketed, and the player to do so in the fewest shots wins. The game can be played by two or more players. Dispenses with some fouls common to both nine- and eight-ball.
Main article: One-pocket
One-pocket is a strategic game for two players. Each player is assigned one of the corner pockets on the table. This is the only pocket into which he can legally pocket balls. The first player to pocket the majority of the balls (8) in his pocket wins the game. The game requires far more defensive strategy than offensive strategy, much unlike eight-ball, nine-ball, or straight pool. It has been said[weasel words] that if eight-ball is checkers, one-pocket is chess. This statement can be verified by watching a game of one pocket. Most times, accomplished players choose to position balls near their pocket instead of trying to actually pocket them. This allows them to control the game by forcing their opponent to be on defense instead of taking a low percentage shot that could result in a loss of game. These low percentage shots are known as “flyers” by one pocket aficionados.
Main article: Bank pool
Bank pool has been gaining popularity in recent years. Bank pool can be played with a full rack (can be a long game), but is more typically played with nine balls (frequently called “nine-ball bank”). The balls are racked in nine-ball formation, but in no particular order. The object of the game is simple: to be the first player to bank five balls in any order (eight balls when played with a full rack). Penalties and fouls are similar to one pocket in that the player committing the foul must spot a ball for each foul. This must be done before the incoming player shoots.
List of cue sports
Carom billiards games
Main category: Carom billiards
Balkline games (18.1, 18.2, etc.)
Cowboy pool (a hybrid carom/pocket game)
English billiards (another hybrid)
Four-ball (yotsudama, sagu)
Pool (pocket billiards) games
Main category: Pool
Bank pool (banks, nine-ball banks)
Baseball pocket billiards
Blackball and British eight-ball pool
Cowboy pool (hybrid)
Eight-ball (stripes-and-solids, highs-and-lows)
English billiards (hybrid)
Irish standard pool
Kelly pool (pill/pea pool)
Poker pool (hybrid)
Skittle pool variants (pin pool)
Snooker (see below; popularly regarded as its own sport, not a pool variant)
Straight pool (also called “14.1 continuous”)
Line-up Straight pool
Trick shot competition
Main category: Snooker
Golf billiards (and its variant, around-the-world)
Obstacle billiards games
Main category: Obstacle billiards
Bottle pool, skittle pool (pin pool), and five-pins are vestigially classifiable here as well
Cueless and/or ball-less developments
Hand billiards and finger pool (no cues)
Carrom (uses small disks instead of balls; some versions use miniature cues, others no cues at all)
Novuss (a variant that uses full-size cues)
Crokinole (some variants of this combination of carrom and shuffleboard use miniature cues)
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Billiards
Glossary of cue sports terms
BCA Hall of Fame
Cue sports techniques
^ “Recognized Sports”. www.olympic.org Official Website of the Olympic Movement. Lausanne, Switzerland: International Olympic Committee. 2009 [copyright date]. pp. “Sports” section. http://www.olympic.org/uk/sports/recognized/. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ “WCBS”. Billiard-WCBS.org. Lausanne: World Confederation of Billiard Sports. 2005 [last known year of update]. pp. Homepage and very name of organization. http://www.billiard-wcbs.org/. Retrieved 2009-06-01.
^ Charles Knight’s “Old England: A Pictorial Museum” (1845), in From Old Books. Retrieved December 27, 2006.
^ Stein and Rubino, Paul, Victor (1996). The Billiard Encyclopedia: An Illustrated History of the Sport (2nd ed.). Blue Book Publications, June 1996. ISBN 1-886768-06-4. , specific page reference needed
^ Bennet, Joseph (1984). Cavendish. ed. Billiards (6th Ed. ed.). London: T. de la Rue. pp. ii. OCLC 12788362. http://books.google.com/books?id=aMkLAAAAYAAJ&pg=PR2#v=onepage&q=&f=false. Retrieved August 25, 2009.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Everton, Clive (1986). The History of Snooker and Billiards (rev. ver. of The Story of Billiards and Snooker, 1979 ed.). Haywards Heath, UK: Partridge Pr. pp. 811. ISBN 1-8522-5013-5.
^ Charles Dickens Jr. (April 13, 1889). “Billiards”. All the Year Round (London: Charles Dickens and Evans, Crystal Palace Press) 64: 349. OCLC 1479125.
^ “Meeting of the Champions; The Big Billiard Tournament to Begin To-morrow What Ives, Schaefer, and Slosson Have Been Doing in Practice The Older Players Not Afraid of the Big Runs Made by Ives Something About the Rise and Progress of the Young ‘Napoleon’ of the Billiard World”, no byline, The New York Times, 1893-12-10, p. 10; The New York Times Company, New York, NY, USA.
^ Shamos, Michael Ian (1993). The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Billiards. New York, NY: Lyons & Burford. Pages: various. ISBN 1-55821-219-1.
^ The New York Times Company (September 16, 1875). Explosive Teeth. Retrieved January 2, 2007.
^ a b Shamos, Michael Ian (1991). Pool. Hotho & Co., June 1991. ISBN 99938-704-3-9.
^ “The World’s Most Tragic Man Is the One Who Never Starts”, Clark, Neil M.; originally published in The American magazine, May 1927; republished in hotwire: The Newsletter of the Toaster Museum Foundation, vol. 3, no. 3, online edition accessed February 24, 2007. The piece is largely an interview of Hoskins.
^ a b c d U.S. Patent 0,578,514, 9 March 1897
^ “Aloxite”, ChemIndustry.com database, retrieved February 24, 2007.
^ “Substance Summary: Aluminum Oxide”, PubChem Database, National Library of Medicine, US National Institutes of Health, retrieved February 24, 2007.
^ a b Varner, Nick (February 2008). “Killing Me Softly?: The Outbreak of the Soft Break Threatens the Game of 9-ball”. Billiards Digest (Chicago, Illinois: Luby Publishing) 30 (3): pp. 3435. ISSN 0164-761X.
^ a b Panozzo, Mike (February 2008). “Long Live the Cup!”. Billiards Digest (Chicago, Illinois: Luby Publishing) 30 (3): pp. 3435. ISSN 0164-761X.
Alciatore, David G. (“Doctor Dave”) (August 2004). The Illustrated Principles of Pool and Billiards. New York, NY: Sterling Publishing. ISBN 1-4027-1428-9. http://billiards.colostate.edu/book/book_description.html.
Byrne, Robert (1998). Byrne’s New Standard Book of Pool and Billiards. New York: Harcourt Brace & Co. ISBN 0-15-100325-4.
World Pool-Billiard Association (WPA) the International Olympic Committee-recognized promulgator of international rules for a variety of cue sports.
Billiard Congress of America (BCA) the US national WPA affiliate
“The Billiards Family [Games] at the Online Guide to Traditional Games; includes sourced information on the early history of the sport
“A Brief History of the Noble Game of Billiards”, by Michael Ian Shamos (a BCA-published summary of Shamos’s more in-depth research on the topic)
“The Illustrated Principles of Pool and Billiards”, by Prof. David G. Alciatore technical billiards physics materials (and online instruction and demonstrations)
“Physics of Billiards” resource list by Regis Petit.
CueTable Billiard Diagram Software
Billiards Digest magazine
Inside Pool magazine
Billiards Supplies e-magazine
v d e
Nine-ball Eight-ball One-pocket Straight pool Bank pool Blackball Baseball pocket billiards Bottle pool Chicago Cowboy pool Cribbage pool Golf pool Kelly pool Rotation Ten-ball Three-ball more
Three-cushion Artistic billiards Five-pins Balkline & straight rail Cushion caroms Four-ball more
Snooker English billiards Russian pyramid Bumper pool Bagatelle Carrom Novuss more
Glossary Techniques Billiard table Billiard ball Billiard hall Cue stick Rack Players Organizations Events Categories
Categories: Cue sportsHidden categories: All pages needing cleanup | Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2008 | All articles with specifically-marked weasel-worded phrases | Articles with specifically-marked weasel-worded phrases from June 2008
More Sports Articles
Article by Paul Harris